Ecological Impact of the Bottled Water Industry
The IBWA reports that the bottled water industry maintains a strong commitment to environmental protection, stating that bottled water waste contributes to about .33 percent of the country‚Äôs total waste. The rate of recycling of the PET plastic used in most water bottles is also on the rise, with about 31 percent of PET plastic being recycled. This rate has doubled during the five-year period between 2004 and 2009. In comparison, about seven percent of total plastic waste is recycled.
One area of growing concern to consumers is the use of BPA (bisphenol-A) plastic that is frequently used for products like baby bottles and in other hard, clear plastics meant for reuse. The primary issue surrounding BPA is the possibility that the plastic could leech harmful chemicals into foods and beverages, although this has not been proven conclusively.
The soft, disposable plastics typically used for bottled water don‚Äôt usually contain BPA; instead, they‚Äôre often made with PET plastics, which don‚Äôt pose the same concerns as BPA. Zintro expert Mike Brunett says, ‚ÄúAlthough the evidence on bisphenol A migration is yet to be conclusive and further studies have had variable results regarding the safety of BPA consumption, the industry has recognized this as a consumer concern. One of the larger players in this category has recently switched plastics material from polycarbonate, (the perceived underlying culprit to BPA) to PET plastic. Time and more studies will be needed and although the science may never be fulfilled here, consumer preference and market movement may be the ultimate forces that change the landscape in this area.‚ÄĚ
Beyond BPA, the primary ecological concern surrounding bottled water is landfill waste contribution. Brunett elaborates: Unfortunately, there is no greater iconic symbol for unsustainability than an empty bottle of water seen as litter. This is in large part, a double-edged sword the category faces due to its widespread consumer popularity/growth, smaller usage of the larger reusable home and office containers and the fact that in the US, recycling has not achieved critical scale yet. Regardless of these dynamics, the larger companies in this category do understand the vital importance of providing sustainable alternatives in their packaging. This is illustrated through:
- Reduction of mass in packaging where over the last 10 ‚Äď 15 years, 50-60% reductions in plastics weight have occurred across the major players (e.g. Pepsi-Cola, Coca-Cola and Nestl√© Waters North America).
- Support of Extended Producer Responsibilities (EPR) for recycling (Nestl√© Waters North America).
- Recycled content where the major players have implemented or have committed to immediate to short term recycled content levels anywhere from 10 ‚Äď 25% in their containers (e.g. Pepsi-Cola, Coca-Cola and Nestl√© Waters North America).
- The use of bio-based resins from renewable feedstock (i.e. sugar cane and switch grass) exemplified by Coca-Cola‚Äôs newest PlantBottle¬ģ launch in early 2011 that uses 30% PET from renewable plant feedstock. Pepsi-Cola subsequently announced the launching of a 100% plant feedstock bio-based bottle.
Given the more recent consumer scrutiny over the sustainable nature of bottled water, the industry has responded in hyper-drive and on multiple fronts to demonstrate their corporate commitments to improve their sustainability and reduce their carbon footprint. These measures have included:
- Stated water use ratios in corporate websites that range in the 1.5 ‚Äď 1.6 liters of total water used for every liter of finished product produced (Nestl√© Waters N.A. and Coca-Cola). Pepsi-Cola reported a 19.5% reduction in water use intensity against 2006.
- Reduction in carbon footprints (i.e. Coca-Cola Enterprises has committed to ‚ÄúReduce the overall carbon footprint of our business operations by 15 percent by 2020, as compared to our 2007 baseline‚ÄĚ from its 2009 Corporate Responsibility and Sustainability (CRS) report). Pepsi-Cola has also committed to a 25% reduction in greenhouse gases (GHG) in U.S. operations in their 2010 annual report and Nestl√© Waters North America reports a 12% overall reduction in GHG from 2006 through 2009 from their website.
- Significant reduction in mass of primary and secondary packaging materials coupled with furthered movement into higher levels of recycled content in PET (rPET).
Raghavendran Badrinath, subject-matter expert at Zintro.com and Director and Owner at Vincent, a Real Estate and Food and Beverage research and consulting firm founded in 1994, notes that the ecological responsibility technically falls into the hands of the consumer. While manufacturers can make efforts to produce packaging that is environmentally-friendly in terms of using recycled materials, it‚Äôs ultimately up to the consumer how he or she disposes of an empty water bottle.
Angela Stringfellow writes for Zintro which connects Clients (expert-seekers) with subject matter experts for consulting engagements. This article was reprinted with permission from Zintro. She is a consultant at Solvate.
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