Classification society Det Norske Veritas and process modeling firm Process Systems Enterprise have developed a concept design for on-board chemical capture, liquefaction and temporary carbon dioxide storage for ships in transit.
Ships using the technique would carry the unwanted materials with them until they could discharge them into transmission and storage infrastructures at the next suitable port.
The results show that the concept is technically feasible and capable of reducing maritime CO2 emissions by up to 65 percent. For a very large crude carrier (VLCC) tanker, this could correspond to capturing more than 70,000 tonnes of CO2 per year, while creating a tradable product, the organizations say.
They say the project took into account the unique challenges posed by the maritime environment – constant movement, limited space and access to utilities, stringent safety requirements and the need for energy efficiency.
The Maritime CCS project was jointly financed by the two partners, the UK’s Technology Strategy Board and the Research Council of Norway under the Eurostars initiative.
Maritime CO2 emissions are estimated at over 1 billion metric tons per year, or 3 percent of total emissions, and are expected to reach 2 to 3 billion metric tons by 2050. The UK government has included maritime emissions in the reduction targets set by its Climate Change Bill, and the International Maritime Organisation is expected to drive a reduction from international shipping.
The UK’s Climate Bill was introduced in 2008. It commits the country to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent by 2050 based on 1990 levels. From now until 2050, the government will introduce “carbon budgets” every five years to outline how emissions targets will be met.